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Turtles

Turtle Classification
1. Snapping Turtles
2. Sea Turtles
3. Big-headed Turtles
4. Pond Turtles and Marsh Turtles
5. Eurasian Pond and River Turtles, and Neotropical Wood Turtles
6. True Tortoises
7. Pig-nosed Turtles
8. Central American River Turtles
9. Mud Turtles and Musk Turtles
10. Softshell Turtles
11. Side-necked Turtles

1. Snapping Turtles
Snapping turtles are the species of turtles which belong to family Chelydridae. This family of turtles consists two species in monotypic genera - the 'common snapping turtle' and the 'alligator snapping turtle', with their population spanning across the continents of North America and South America, besides some parts of Asia.

1.1. Genus Chelydra
1.1.1. Common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina)
Geographical Range: Canada, United States and Mexico
Conservation Status: Least Concern
1.1.2. Florida Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina osceola)
1.1.3. Mexican Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina rossignoni)
1.1.4. South American (Equadorian) Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina acutirostris)

1.2. Genus Macrochelys
Alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii)
Geographical Range: Southern United States
Conservation Status: Vulnerable


2. Sea Turtles

2.1. Genus Caretta
 Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout the world
Conservation Status: Endangered

2.2. Genus Chelonia
Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas)
Geographical Range: Tropical and subtropical seas of the world
Conservation Status: Endangered

2.3. Genus Eretmochelys
Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout the world
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

2.4. Genus Lepidochelys
2.4.1. Olive ridley sea turtle(Lepidochelys olivacea)
Geographical Range: Tropical and warm waters of the world
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
2.4.2. Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii)
Geographical Range: Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

2.5. Genus Natator
Flatback sea turtle (Natator depressus)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Australian continental shelf
Conservation Status: Endangered

2.6. Genus Dermochelys (Dermochelyidae sub-family)
Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout the world
Conservation Status: Endangered


3. Big-headed Turtles
The big-head turtle, found in south and southeast Asia, is the lone member of family Platysternidae i.e. the family of big-headed turtles. As the name of this monotypic species suggests, it is typically characterized by its large head. The big-headed turtle was grouped with the snapping turtles previously owing to its resemblance to them, but this placement was reconsidered as eventually it became clear that the resemblance is trivial.

3.1. Genus Platysternon
Big-headed turtle - Rùa đầu to (Platysternon megacephalum)
Geographical Range: China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Endangered


4. Pond Turtles and Marsh Turtles
Those species of turtles which are found in ponds and marshes across the world come together to form the Emydidae family of turtles. This group is made up of around 50 species, nearly all of which are found in the Western Hemisphere. The members of this turtle family are quite popular when it comes to pet trade, and hence are most popular of the lot.

4.1. Genus Clemmys
Spotted turtle (Clemmys guttata)
Geographical Range: Southern Canada and the Eastern U.S.
Conservation Status: Endangered

4.2. Genus Emys
4.2.1. Blanding's turtle (Emys blandingii)
Geographical Range: Southern and central Europe, West Asia and North Africa
Conservation Status: Endangered
4.2.2. European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis)
Geographical Range: Sicily, Italy
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
4.2.3. Sicilian pond turtle (Emys trinacris)
Geographical Range: Canada and the United States
Conservation Status: Endangered
4.2.4. Western pond turtle (Emys marmorata)
Geographical Range: West coast of the United States of America and Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

4.3. Genus Glyptemys
4.3.1. Bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii)
Geographical Range: Eastern United States
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
4.3.Wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta)
Geographical Range: Endemic to North America
Conservation Status: Endangered

4.4. Genus Terrapene
Common box turtle
4.4.1. Common box turtle (Terrapene carolina)
Geographical Range: Eastern United States and Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
4.4.2. Coahuilan box turtle (Terrapene coahuila)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Endangered
Ornate box turtle
4.4.3. Ornate box turtle (Terrapene ornata)
Geographical Range: Central United States
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
4.4.4. Spotted box turtle (Terrapene nelsoni)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

4.5. Genus Chrysemys
Painted turtle
4.5.1. Painted turtle (Chrysemys picta)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout North America
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Deirochelys
4.5.2. Chicken turtle (Deirochelys reticularia)
Geographical Range: Southeast United States
Conservation Status: Least Concern

4.6. Genus Graptemys
4.6.1. Alabama map turtle (Graptemys pulchra)
Geographical Range: Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
4.6.2. Barbour's map turtle (Graptemys barbouri)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the eastern United States
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
4.6.3. Black-knobbed map turtle (Graptemys nigrinoda)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the southeastern United States
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
4.6.4. Cagle's map turtle (Graptemys caglei)
Geographical Range: Texas, USA
Conservation Status: Endangered
4.6.5. Escambia map turtle (Graptemys ernsti)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the United States
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
4.6.6. False map turtle (Graptemys pseudogeographica)
Geographical Range: Missouri and Mississippi river, USA
Conservation Status: Least Concern
4.6.7. Northern map turtle (Graptemys geographica)
Geographical Range: Southern Canada and the United States
Conservation Status: Least Concern
4.6.8. Ouachita map turtle (Graptemys ouachitensis)
Geographical Range: United States of America
Conservation Status: NA
4.6.9. Pascagoula map turtle (Graptemys gibbonsi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the Pascagoula River in the United States
Conservation Status: Endangered
4.6.10. Pearl River map turtle (Graptemys pearlensis)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the Pearl River in the United States
Conservation Status: Endangered
4.6.11. Ringed map turtle (Graptemys oculifera)
Geographical Range: Pearl River in the United States
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
4.6.12. Texas map turtle (Graptemys versa)
Geographical Range: Central Texas
Conservation Status: Least Concern
4.6.13. Yellow blotched sawback or Yellow-blotched map turtle (Graptemys flavimaculata)
Geographical Range: Pascagoula River and its tributaries in the United States
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

4.7. Genus Malaclemys
Diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin)
Geographical Range: Florida Keys to Cape Cod, United States
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

4.8. Genus Pseudemys
4.8.1. Alabama red-bellied cooter (Pseudemys alabamensis)
Geographical Range: Native to Alabama
Conservation Status: Endangered
4.8.2. Florida red-bellied cooter (Pseudemys nelsoni)
Geographical Range: Florida and southern Georgia
Conservation Status: Least Concern
4.8.3. Northern red-bellied cooter (Pseudemys rubriventris)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the United States
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
4.8.4. Peninsula cooter (Pseudemys peninsularis)
Geographical Range: Florida peninsula
Conservation Status: NA
4.8.5. Rio Grande cooter (Pseudemys gorzugi)
Geographical Range: Mexico and the United States
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
4.8.6. River cooter (Pseudemys concinna)
Geographical Range: Central and eastern United States
Conservation Status: Least Concern
4.8.7. Texas river cooter (Pseudemys texana)
Geographical Range: Texas, United States
Conservation Status: NA

4.9. Genus Trachemys
4.9.1. Pond slider (Trachemys scripta)
Geographical Range: Native to the US and Mexico
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
4.9.2. Baja California slider (Trachemys nebulosa)
Geographical Range: Baja California, Sinaloa and Sonora in Mexico
Conservation Status: NA
4.9.3. Big bend slider (Trachemys gaigeae)
Geographical Range: New Mexico and Texas (USA) and Chihuahua (Mexico)
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
4.9.4. Central Antillean slider (Trachemys stejnegeri)
Geographical Range: Puerto Rico, Great Inagua, Dominican Republic and Haiti Conservation Status: 4.9.5. Colombian slider (Trachemys callirostris)
Geographical Range: Colombia and Venezuela
Conservation Status: NA
4.9.6. Cuatro Cienegas slider (Trachemys taylori)
Geographical Range: Cuatro Ciènegas basin, Mexico
Conservation Status: Endangered
4.9.7. Cuban slider (Trachemys decussata)
Geographical Range: Native to Cuba and Isla de la Juventud
Conservation Status: NA
4.9.8. D'Orbigny's slider (Trachemys dorbigni)
Geographical Range: Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay
Conservation Status: Least Concern
4.9.9. Haitian slider (Trachemys decorata)
Geographical Range: Dominican Republic, Haiti, Cuba, and Puerto Rico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
4.9.10. Jamaican slider (Trachemys terrapen)
Geographical Range: Bahamas and Jamaica
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
4.9.11. Maranhão slider (Trachemys adiutrix)
Geographical Range: Endemic to northeastern Brazil
Conservation Status: Endangered
4.9.12. Meso-American slider (Trachemys venusta)
Geographical Range: Mexico to Honduros
Conservation Status: NA
4.9.13. Nicaraguan slider (Trachemys emolli)
Geographical Range: Nicaragua and Costa Rica
Conservation Status: NA
4.9.14. Ornate slider (Trachemys ornata)
Geographical Range: Western Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
4.9.15. Yaqui slider (Trachemys yaquia)
Geographical Range: Northwestern Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

5. Eurasian Pond and River Turtles, and Neotropical Wood Turtles
The Geoemydidae family is the largest family of turtles, with as many as 70 species to its credit. With the exception of the 9 species belonging to Genus Rhinoclemmys, which are found in Central America and South America, all the other members of Geoemydidae family are distributed across Eurasia, and the northern regions of Africa. Initially believed to be a monotypic species, the yellow-headed temple turtle (Hieremys annandalii) has now been added to Genus Heosemys which is part of this turtle family.

5.1. Genus Batagur
5.1.1. Burmese roofed turtle (Batagur trivittata)
Geographical Range: Burma
Conservation Status: Endangered
5.1.2. Northern river terrapin (Batagur baska)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
5.1.3. Painted terrapin or Saw-jawed turtle (Batagur borneoensis)
Geographical Range: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
5.1.4. Red-crowned roofed turtle (Batagur kachuga)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
5.1.5. Southern river terrapin (Batagur affinis)
Geographical Range: Malaysia, Indonesia and Cambodia
Conservation Status: NA
5.1.6. Three-striped roofed turtle (Batagur dhongoka)
Geographical Range: Nepal, Bangladesh and India
Conservation Status: Endangered

5.2. Genus Geoclemys
Black pond turtle or Spotted pond turtle (Geoclemys hamiltonii)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

5.3. Genus Hardella
Brahminy river turtle or Crowned river turtle (Hardella thurjii)
Geographical Range: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

5.4. Genus Morenia
5.4.1. Bengal eyed terrapin (Morenia ocellata)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Burma
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
5.4.2. Indian eyed turtle (Morenia petersi)
Geographical Range: India and Bangladesh
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

5.5. Genus Pangshura
5.5.1. Assam roofed turtle (Pangshura sylhetensis)
Geographical Range: Assam and eastern Bangladesh
Conservation Status: Endangered
5.5.2. Brown roofed turtle (Pangshura smithii)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
5.5.3. Indian roofed turtle (Pangshura tecta)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Least Concern
5.5.4. Indian tent turtle (Pangshura tentoria)
Geographical Range: Peninsular India
Conservation Status: Least Concern

5.6. Genus Chinemys
5.6.1. Chinese broad-headed pond turtle (Chinemys megalocephala)
Geographical Range: Endemic to China
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
5.6.2. Chinese pond turtle (Chinemys reevesii)
Geographical Range: Endemic to China
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
5.6.3. Red-necked pond turtle (Chinemys nigricans)
Geographical Range: Endemic to China
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

5.7. Genus Cuora
5.7.1. Amboina box turtle - Rùa hộp lưng đen (Cuora amboinensis)
Geographical Range: Throughout south and southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
5.7.2. Chinese three-striped box turtle or Golden coin turtle (Cuora trifasciata)
Geographical Range: China
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
5.7.3. Indochinese (flowerback) box turtle (Cuora galbinifrons)
Geographical Range: China, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
5.7.4. McCord's box turtle (Cuora mccordi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Chinese Guangxi province
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
5.7.5. Pan's box turtle (Cuora pani)
Geographical Range: Endemic to China
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
5.7.6. Southern Vietnamese box turtle (Cuora picturata)
Geographical Range: Mountainous regions in southern Vietnam
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
5.7.7. Vietnamese three-striped box turtle (Cuora cyclornata)
Geographical Range: China, Vietnam and Laos
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
5.7.8. Yellow-margined box turtle, Chinese box turtle or Snake-eating turtle (Cuora flavomarginata)
Geographical Range: Central China, Taiwan and Japan
Conservation Status: Endangered
5.7.9. Yunnan box turtle (Cuora yunnanensis)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Yunan province of China
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
5.7.10. Zhou's box turtle (Cuora zhoui)
Geographical Range: China and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

5.8. Genus Cyclemys
5.8.1. Asian leaf turtle (Cyclemys dentata)
Geographical Range: South and southeast Asia
Conservation Status: NA
5.8.2. Assam leaf turtle (Cyclemys gemeli)
Geographical Range: Bangladesh and India
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
5.8.3. Eastern black-bridged leaf turtle (Cyclemys pulchristiata)
Geographical Range: Cambodia and Vietnam
Conservation Status: NA
5.8.4. Enigmatic leaf turtle (Cyclemys enigmatica)
Geographical Range: Brunei , Malaysia and Indonesia
Conservation Status: NA
5.8.5. Myanmar brown leaf turtle (Cyclemys fusca)
Geographical Range: Myanmar, India and Bangladesh
Conservation Status: NA
5.8.6. Oldham's leaf turtle (Cyclemys oldhamii)
Geographical Range: South and southeast Asia
Conservation Status: NA
5.8.7. Western black-bridged leaf turtle (Cyclemys atripons)
Geographical Range: Cambodia, Southeast Thailand and Vietnam
Conservation Status: NA

5.9 Genus Geoemyda
5.9.1. Black-breasted hill turtle (Geoemyda spengleri)
Geographical Range: China and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Endangered
5.9.2. Ryukyu black-breasted leaf turtle (Geoemyda japonica)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the Ryukyu Islands in Japan
Conservation Status: Endangered

5.10. Genus Leucocephalon
Sulawesi forest turtle (Leucocephalon yuwonoi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Indonesia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

5.11. Genus Malayemys
5.11.1. Malayemys macrocephala
Geographical Range: Cambodia, West Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand
Conservation Status: NA
5.11.2. Malayemys subtrijuga
Geographical Range: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Thailand
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

5.12. Genus Heosemys
5.12.1. Arakan forest turtle (Heosemys depressa)
Geographical Range: Arakan hills of western Myanmar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
5.12.2. Giant Asian pond turtle (Heosemys grandis)
Geographical Range: Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
5.12.3. Spiny turtle (Heosemys spinosa)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Endangered
5.12.4. Yellow-headed temple turtle (Heosemys annandalii)
Geographical Range: Native to Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: NA

5.13. Genus Mauremys
5.13.1. Balkan pond turtle or Balkan terrapin (Mauremys rivulata)
Geographical Range: Balkan peninsula
Conservation Status: NA
5.13.2. Caspian turtle or Striped-neck terrapin (Mauremys caspica)
Geographical Range: Eastern Mediterranean region
Conservation Status: NA
5.13.3. Japanese pond turtle (Mauremys japonica)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Japan
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
5.13.4. Spanish pond turtle (Mauremys leprosa)
Geographical Range: Europe and northwestern Africa
Conservation Status: NA
5.13.5. Vietnamese pond turtle or Annam leaf turtle (Mauremys annamensis)
Geographical Range: Endemic to central Vietnam
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
5.13.6. Yellow pond turtle (Mauremys mutica)
Geographical Range: China, Japan, Taiwan and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Endangered

5.14. Genus Melanochelys
5.14.1. Indian black turtle (Melanochelys trijuga)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
5.14.2. Tricarinate hill turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata)
Geographical Range: India, Bangladesh and Nepal
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

5.15. Genus Notochelys
Malayan flat-shelled turtle (Notochelys platynota)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

5.16. Genus Ocadia
5.16.1. Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle (Ocadia sinensis)
Geographical Range: China, Taiwan and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Endangered
5.16.2. Ocadia glyphistoma
Geographical Range: Endemic to Guangxi/China
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
5.16.3. Philippen's striped turtle (Ocadia philippeni)
Geographical Range: Hainan Province of China
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

5.17. Genus Orlitia
Malaysian giant turtle or Bornean river turtle (Orlitia borneensis)
Geographical Range: Indonesia and Malaysia
Conservation Status: Endangered
5.18. Genus Pyxidea
Keeled box turtle (Pyxidea mouhotii or Cuora mouhotii)
Geographical Range: China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar and India Conservation Status: Endangered

5.19. Genus Rhinoclemmys
5.19.1. Black river turtle (Rhinoclemmys funerea)
Geographical Range: Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
5.19.2. Brown wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys annulata)
Geographical Range: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
5.19.3. Colombian wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys melanosterna)
Geographical Range: Colombia, Ecuador and Panama
Conservation Status: Least Concern
5.19.4. Furrowed wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys areolata)
Geographical Range: Yucatan Peninsula and surrounding areas
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
5.19.5. Large-nosed wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys nasuta)
Geographical Range: Colombia and Ecuador
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
5.19.6. Maracaibo wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys diademata)
Geographical Range: Colombia and Venezuela
Conservation Status: Least Concern
5.19.7. Mexican spotted wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys rubida)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
5.19.8. Painted wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima)
Geographical Range: Mexico and Central America
Conservation Status: NA
5.19.9. Spot-legged turtle (Rhinoclemmys punctularia)
Geographical Range: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venuezuela, Trinidad and Tobago
Conservation Status: Least Concern

5.20. Genus Sacalia
5.20.1. Beal's eyed turtle or Beal's four-eyed turtle (Sacalia bealei)
Geographical Range: China and Hong Kong
Conservation Status: Endangered
5.20.2. Chinese false-eyed turtle (Sacalia pseudocellata)
Geographical Range: Hainan, China
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
5.20.3. Four-eyed turtle (Sacalia quadriocellata)
Geographical Range: China, Laos and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Endangered

5.21. Genus Siebenrockiella
5.21.1. Black marsh turtle (Siebenrockiella crassicollis)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
5.21.2. Philippine forest turtle (Siebenrockiella leytensis)
Geographical Range: The island province of Palawan in Philippines
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

5.22. Genus Vijayachelys
Cochin forest cane turtle (Vijayachelys silvatica)
Geographical Range: Western Ghats of India
Conservation Status: Endangered

6. True Tortoises
The Testudinidae family of turtles, i.e. the true tortoises, is made up of all the land-dwelling species of this reptile. The two sub-families Testudininae (38 species) and Xerobatinae (6 species) together account for the 44 extant species of true tortoises on the planet. One gets to see a great deal of diversity within this family. The largest living species of tortoise - the Aldabra giant tortoise, is one of the most popular members of this turtle family.

6.1. Genus Aldabrachelys
6.1.1. Aldabra giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea)
Geographical Range: Aldabra Atoll in the Seychelles
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
6.1.2. Arnold's giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea arnoldi)
Geographical Range: Seychelles islands
Conservation Status: Conservation dependent
6.1.3. Seychelles giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea hololissa)
Geographical Range: Seychelles islands
Conservation Status: Extinct in the Wild

6.2. Genus Astrochelys
6.2.1. Radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Madagascar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
6.2.2. Angulated tortoise or Madagascan(plowshare) tortoise (Astrochelys yniphora)
Geographical Range: Southern Madagascar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

6.3. Genus Chelonoidis
6.3.1. Galapagos giant tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra)
Geographical Range: Native to seven of the Galápagos Islands
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
6.3.2. Argentine tortoise or Chilean tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis)
Geographical Range: Native to Argentina
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
6.3.3. Brazilian giant tortoise or Yellow-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis denticulata)
Geographical Range: South America
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
6.3.4. Chaco tortoise (Chelonoidis petersi)
Geographical Range: Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
6.3.5. Red-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis carbonaria)
Geographical Range: Native to South America
Conservation Status: Endangered

6.4. Genus Chersina
Bowsprit tortoise (Chersina angulata)
Geographical Range: Dry areas and scrub forest in South Africa
Conservation Status: NA

6.5. Genus Geochelone
6.5.1. African spurred tortoise or Sulcata tortoise (Geochelone sulcata)
Geographical Range: Southern Sahara in Africa
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
6.5.2. Burmese star tortoise (Geochelone platynota)
Geographical Range: Myanmar (Burma)
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
6.5.3. Indian star tortoise (Geochelone elegans)
Geographical Range: India and Sri Lanka
Conservation Status: Least Concerned

6.6. Genus Homopus
6.6.1. Beaked cape tortoise or Parrot-beaked cape tortoise (Homopus areolatus)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the Republic of South Africa
Conservation Status: NA
6.6.2. Berger's cape tortoise or Nama padloper (Homopus bergeri or Homopus solus)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Namibia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
6.6.3. Boulenger's cape tortoise (Homopus boulengeri)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the Nama Karoo Region of South Africa and in southern Namibia
Conservation Status: NA
6.6.4. Karroo cape tortoise (Homopus femoralis)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the Karoo region of South Africa
Conservation Status: NA
6.6.5. Speckled cape tortoise or Speckled padloper (Homopus signatus)
Geographical Range: Little Namaqualand, South Africa
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

6.7. Genus Indotestudo
6.7.1. Elongated tortoise (Indotestudo elongata)
Geographical Range: South and southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Endangered
6.7.2. Travancore tortoise or Forsten's tortoise (Indotestudo forstenii)
Geographical Range: Sulawesi Island, Indonesia
Conservation Status: Endangered
6.7.3. Travancore tortoise (Indotestudo travancorica)
Geographical Range: Western Ghats of India
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

6.8. Genus Kinixys
6.8.1. Bell's hinged-back tortoise (Kinixys belliana)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout a large part of sub-Saharan Africa
Conservation Status: Least Concern
6.8.2. Home's hinge-back tortoise (Kinixys homeana)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout the African continent
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
6.8.3. Lobatse hinge-back tortoise (Kinixys lobatsiana)
Geographical Range: Southern Africa
Conservation Status: NA
6.8.4. Natal hinge-back tortoise (Kinixys natalensis)
Geographical Range: Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
6.8.5. Serrated hinge-back tortoise (Kinixys erosa)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout the African continent
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
6.8.6. Speke's hinge-back tortoise (Kinixys spekii)
Geographical Range: Africa
Conservation Status: NA

6.9. Genus Malacochersus
6.9.1. Pancake tortoise (Malacochersus tornieri)
Geographical Range: Native to Tanzania and Kenya
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

6.10. Genus Psammobates
6.10.1. African tent tortoise (Psammobates tentorius)
Geographical Range: Southern Africa
Conservation Status: NA
6.10.2. Geometric tortoise (Psammobates geometricus)
Geographical Range: South-Western Cape of South Africa
Conservation Status: Endangered
6.10.3. Serrated star tortoise (Psammobates oculifer)
Geographical Range: Southern Africa
Conservation Status: NA

6.11. Genus Pyxis
6.11.1. Madagascan flat-tailed tortoise (Pyxis planicauda)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Madagascar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
6.11.2. Madagascan spider tortoise (Pyxis arachnoides)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Madagascar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

6.12. Genus Stigmochelys
Leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis)
Geographical Range: Savannas of eastern and southern Africa
Conservation Status: Least Concern

6.13. Genus Testudo
6.13.1. Herman's tortoise (Testudo hermanni)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout southern Europe
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
6.13.2. Marginated tortoise (Testudo marginata)
Geographical Range: Greece, Italy and the Balkans in southern Europe
Conservation Status: Least Concern
6.13.3. Egyptian tortoise (Testudo kleinmanni)
Geographical Range: Egypt
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
6.13.4. Greek tortoise or Spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca)
Geographical Range: Europe and Africa
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
6.13.5. Russian tortoise, Horsfield's tortoise or Central Asian tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii)
Geographical Range: Afghanistan to north-western China
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

6.14. Genus Gopherus
6.14.1. Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)
Geographical Range: Native to the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the US and Mexico.
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
6.14.2. Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus)
Geographical Range: Native to North America
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
6.14.3. Gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus)
Geographical Range: Native to the southeastern United States
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
6.14.4. Texas tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri)
Geographical Range: Native to North America
Conservation Status: Least Concern

6.15. Genus Manouria
6.15.1. Brown tortoise or Mountain tortoise (Manouria emys)
Geographical Range: India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia
Conservation Status: Endangered
6.15.2. Impressed tortoise (Manouria impressa)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable


7. Pig-nosed Turtles
The pig-nose turtle is the lone member of family Carettochelyidae, and is found in the freshwater sources of the Australian continent and some parts of southeast Asia. The species is typically characterized by a beak resembling the snout of a hog, and hence the name. One of the most widespread family of turtles on the planet at one point of time, family Carettochelyidae is battling for its survival today - with the pig-nosed turtle being the sole survivor of the lot.

7.1. Genus Carettochelys
Pig-nosed turtle (Carettochelys insculpta)
Geographical Range: Northern Territory, Papua New Guinea and West Papua region
Conservation Status: Endangered

8. Central American River Turtles
The Central American river turtle, native to the rivers of Central America, is the lone survivor of family Dermatemydidae. While the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has this species enlisted as a 'Critically Endangered' species, the U.S. Endangered Species Act has it enlisted as 'Endangered'. As in case of the pig-nosed turtle, the extinction of Central American river turtle will also mark the extinction of an entire turtle family from the planet.

8.1. Genus Dermatemys
Central American river turtle or Mesoamerican river turtle (Dermatemys mawii)
Geographical Range: Central America, from southern Mexico to northern Honduras
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

9. Mud Turtles and Musk Turtles
Mud turtles and musk turtles are the small turtles belonging to family Kinosternidae. Though there is no consensus on classification of this family, most of the sources group the 25 extant species into 4 genera. While the common name mud turtles is derived from the fact that these species are usually known to inhabit the muddy bottoms of near-stagnant water bodies, the name musk turtles is derived from their ability to release a distinct musky odor.

9.1. Genus Kinosternon
9.1.1. Alamos mud turtle (Kinosternon alamosae)
Geographical Range: Sinaloa and Sonora
Conservation Status: Least Concern
9.1.2. Arizona mud turtle (Kinosternon arizonense)
Geographical Range: Arizona (United States) and Sonora (Mexico)
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
9.1.3. Central American mud turtle (Kinosternon angustipons)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Central America
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
9.1.4. Creaser's mud turtle (Kinosternon creaseri)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
9.1.5. Dunn's mud turtle (Kinosternon dunni)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Colombia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
9.1.6. Durango mud turtle (Kinosternon durangoense)
Geographical Range: Chihuahua, Coahuila and Durango
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
9.1.7. Eastern mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum)
Geographical Range: United States
Conservation Status: Least Concern
9.1.8. Guanajuato mud turtle (Kinosternon integrum)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
9.1.9. Herrara's mud turtle (Kinosternon herrerai)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
9.1.10. Jalisco mud turtle (Kinosternon chimalhuaca)
Geographical Range: Venezuela and Colombia
Conservation Status: Least Concern
9.1.11. Mexican mud turtle (Kinosternon hirtipes)
Geographical Range: United States (Texas) and Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
9.1.12. Oaxaca mud turtle (Kinosternon oaxacae)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

9.1.13. Scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides)
Geographical Range: Mexico, Central America and South America
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

  • Scorpion mud turtle (subspecies) - Kinosternon scorpioides scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1766)
  • Central Chiapas mud turtle - Kinosternon scorpioides abaxillare (Baur, 1925)
  • White-throated mud turtle - Kinosternon scorpioides albogulare (Duméril and Bibron, 1870)
  • Red-cheeked mud turtle - Kinosternon scorpioides cruentatum (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1851) * box turtle

9.1.14. Sonora mud turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense)
Geographical Range: Mexico and the United States
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
9.1.15. Striped mud turtle (Kinosternon baurii)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the United States
Conservation Status: Least Concern
9.1.16. Tabasco mud turtle (Kinosternon acutum)
Geographical Range: Belize, Guatemala and Mexico
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
9.1.17. White-lipped mud turtle (Kinosternon leucostomum)
Geographical Range: Mexico, Central America and South America
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
9.1.18. Yellow mud turtle (Kinosternon flavescens)
Geographical Range: Central United States and Mexico
Conservation Status: Least Concern

9.2. Genus Sternotherus
9.2.1. Common musk turtle or Stinkpot (Sternotherus odoratus)
Geographical Range: Native to southeastern Canada and the eastern United States
Conservation Status: Least Concern
9.2.2. Flattened musk turtle (Sternotherus depressus)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the United States
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
9.2.3. Loggerhead musk turtle (Sternotherus minor)
Geographical Range: Native to the United States
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
9.2.4. Razorback musk turtle (Sternotherus carinatus)
Geographical Range: Native to the United States
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

9.3. Genus Claudius
Narrow-bridged musk turtle (Claudius angustatus)
Geographical Range: Mexico, Guatemala and Belize
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

9.4. Genus Staurotypus
9.4.1. Chiapas giant musk turtle (Staurotypus salvinii)
Geographical Range: Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala and Belize
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
9.4.2. Mexican giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus)
Geographical Range: Central America and Mexico
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

10. Softshell Turtles
Softshell turtles, or softshells as they are often called, are turtles belonging to family Trionychidae, typically characterized by a carpace which is hard in the center, leathery towards the edges and lacks the typical horny scales. (The spiny softshell is the only member of this family of turtles which sports a carpace with scaly projections.) Softshell turtles are found in Asia, Africa and South America, wherein the 13 existing genera of turtles are grouped into two subfamilies - Cyclanorbinae and Trionychinae.

10.1. Genus Cyclanorbis
10.1.1. Nubian flapshell turtle (Cyclanorbis elegans)
Geographical Range: Benin, Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, Sudan and Togo
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
10.1.2. Senegal flapshell turtle (Cyclanorbis senegalensis)
Geographical Range: Most the African continent
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

10.2. Genus Chelus
Mata-mata or Matamata (Chelus fimbriatus)
Geographical Range: Amazon and Orinoco basins, South America
Conservation Status: Least Concern

10.3. Genus Cycloderma
10.3.1. Aubry's flapshell turtle (Cycloderma aubryi)
Geographical Range: Democratic Republic of Congo, Zaire, Gabon and Angola
Conservation Status: NA
10.3.2. Zambezi flapshell turtle (Cycloderma frenatum)
Geographical Range: Southeastern Africa
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

10.4. Genus Lissemys
10.4.1. Indian flapshell turtle (Lissemys punctata)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Least Concern
10.4.2. Burmese flapshell turtle (Lissemys scutata)
Geographical Range: Myanmar and Thailand
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

10.5. Genus Amyda
10.5.1. Asiatic softshell turtle (Amyda cartilaginea)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
10.5.2. Amyda nakornsrithammarajensis
Geographical Range: Thailand and surrounding regions
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

10.6. Genus Apalone
10.6.1. Florida softshell turtle (Apalone ferox)
Geographical Range: The states of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida and Alabama in the U.S.
Conservation Status: NA
10.6.2. Smooth softshell turtle (Apalone mutica)
Geographical Range: Eastern United States
Conservation Status: NA
10.6.3. Spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera)
Geographical Range: Canada, United States and Mexico
Conservation Status: Least Concern

10.7. Genus Chitra
10.7.1. Asian narrow-headed softshell turtle (Chitra chitra)
Geographical Range: Indonesia, Thailand and Myanmar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
10.7.2. Siamese narrow-headed softshell turtle (Chitra chitra chitra)
Geographical Range: Indian subcontinent
Conservation Status: NA
10.7.3. Javanese narrow-headed softshell turtle (Chitra chitra javanensis)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: NA
10.7.4. Indian narrow-headed shelled turtle (Chitra indica)
Geographical Range: India and Pakistan
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
10.7.5. Burmese narrow-headed softshell turtle (Chitra vandijki)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: NA

10.8. Genus Dogania
Malayan soft-shelled turtle (Dogania subplana)
Geographical Range: Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines and Singapore
Conservation Status: Least Concern

10.9. Genus Nilssonia
10.9.1. Burmese softshell turtle (Nilssonia formosa)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Myanmar
Conservation Status: Endangered
10.9.2. Ganges softshell turtle (Nilssonia gangetica)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
10.9.3. Peacock softshell turtle (Nilssonia hurum)
Geographical Range: Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
10.9.4. Nagpur softshell turtle (Nilssonia leithii)
Geographical Range: Peninsular India
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
10.9.5. Black softshell turtle (Nilssonia nigricans)
Geographical Range: India and Bangladesh
Conservation Status: Extinct in the Wild

10.10. Genus Palea
Wattle-necked softshell turtle (Palea steindachneri)
Geographical Range: Native to China and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Endangered

10.11. Genus Pelochelys
10.11.1. New Guinea giant softshell turtle (Pelochelys bibroni)
Geographical Range: Australia, West Papua, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
10.11.2. Cantor's giant softshell turtle (Pelochelys cantorii)
Geographical Range: South and southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Endangered
10.11.3. Northern New Guinea giant softshell turtle (Pelochelys signifera)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: NA

10.12. Genus Pelodiscus
10.12.1. Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis)
Geographical Range: China, Korea, North Vietnam and Japan and Russia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
10.12.2. Hunan softshell turtle (Pelodiscus axenaria)
Geographical Range: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Conservation Status: NA
10.12.3. Lesser Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus piriformis)
Geographical Range: Guangxi Zhuang Region and Hunan Province
Conservation Status: NA
10.12.4. Northern Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus maackii)
Geographical Range: Russia, Northeast China, Democratic Republic of Korea and South Korea
Conservation Status: NA

10.13. Genus Rafetus
10.13.1. Euphrates softshell turtle (Rafetus euphraticus)
Geographical Range: Iraq, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, and Khuzestan Province of Iran
Conservation Status: Endangered
10.13.2. Yangtze giant softshell turtle (Rafetus swinhoei)
Geographical Range: Vietnam and China
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

10.14. Genus Trionyx
10.14.1. African softshell turtle or Nile softshell turtle (Trionyx triunguis)
Geographical Range: Parts of Africa and Near East
Conservation Status: NA


11. Side-necked Turtles
Side-necked turtles are those species which turn their neck sidewards and tuck their head in a cavity near their front legs, instead of retracting it into the shell. These turtles are predominantly found in the southern hemisphere of the planet. The extant side-necked turtle species are further classified into two families based on their geographical range - family Chelidae, which comprises Austro-American side-necked turtles, and family Pelomedusidae, which comprises African side-neck turtles and the Madagascan big-headed and American side-neck river turtles).

11.1. Genus Chelodina
11.1.1. Arnhem land long neck turtle (Chelodina burrungandjii)
Geographical Range: Northern Territory, Australia
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.1.2. Broad-shelled turtle (Chelodina expansa)
Geographical Range: Southern Australia
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
11.1.3. Cann's snake-neck turtle (Chelodina canni)
Geographical Range: Northern and northeastern parts of Australia
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.1.4. Eastern long-necked turtle (Chelodina longicollis)
Geographical Range: Northern Queensland to South Australia
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.1.5. Narrow-breasted snake-necked turtle (Macrodiremys colliei)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the southwestern part of Western Australia
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
11.1.6. New Guinea snake-necked turtle (Chelodina novaeguineae)
Geographical Range: Northeastern Australia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.1.7. Northern long-necked turtle (Chelodina rugosa)
Geographical Range: Australia, Indonesia and Pitcairn Islands
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
11.1.8. Parker's snake-necked Turtle (Chelodina parkeri)
Geographical Range: West Papua in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
11.1.9. Pritchard's snake-necked turtle (Chelodina pritchardi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: Endangered
11.1.10. Reimann's snake-necked turtle (Chelodina reimanni)
Geographical Range: Indonesia
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
11.1.11. Roti Island snake-necked turtle (Chelodina mccordi)
Geographical Range: Rote Island between New Guinea and Australia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
11.1.12. Steindachner's snake-neck Turtle (Chelodina steindachneri)
Geographical Range: Western Australia
Conservation Status: NA

11.2. Genus Elseya
11.2.1. Branderhorst's snapping turtle (Elseya branderhorstii)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Indonesia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
11.2.2. Gulf snapping turtle (Elseya lavarackorum)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Australia
Conservation Status: Endangered
11.2.3. Irwin's turtle (Elseya irwini)
Geographical Range: Fitzroy River, Queensland
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
11.2.4. Northern snapping turtle (Elseya dentata)
Northern Western Australia and the Northern Territory
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.2.5. White throated Snapping turtle (Elseya albagula)
Geographical Range: Endemic to southeastern Queensland, Australia
Conservation Status: Endangered

11.3. Genus Emydura
11.3.1. Macquarie turtle (Emydura macquarii)
Geographical Range: Eastern Australia
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.3.2. Northern yellow-faced turtle (Emydura tanybaraga)
Geographical Range: Northern Australia
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.3.3. Red-bellied short-necked turtle or Jardine river turtle (Emydura subglobosa)
Geographical Range: Australia and Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.3.4. Victoria river red-faced turtle (Emydura victoriae)
Geographical Range: Northern Australia
Conservation Status: Least Concern

11.4. Genus Elusor
Mary River turtle (Elusor macrurus)
Geographical Range: Mary River in South-East Queensland
Conservation Status: Endangered

11.5. Genus Myuchelys
11.5.1. Bellinger river snapping turtle (Myuchelys georgesi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Australia
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
11.5.2. Manning river snapping turtle (Myuchelys purvisi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Australia
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
11.5.3. Namoi river snapping turtle (Myuchelys belli)
Geographical Range: Endemic to New South Wales, Australia
Conservation Status: Endangered
11.5.4. New Guinea snapping turtle (Myuchelys novaeguineae)
Geographical Range: Indonesia and Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.5.5. Saw-shelled turtle (Myuchelys latisternum)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Australia
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

11.6. Genus Pseudemydura
Western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina)
Geographical Range: Western Australia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

11.7. Genus Rheodytes
Fitzroy River Turtle (Rheodytes leukops)
Geographical Range: Endemic to south eastern Queensland, Australia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

11.8. Genus Acanthochelys
11.8.1. Big-headed pantanal swamp turtle (Acanthochelys macrocephala)
Geographical Range: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
11.8.2. Black spine-neck swamp turtle (Acanthochelys spixii)
Geographical Range: Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
11.8.3. Brazilian radiolated swamp turtle (Acanthochelys radiolata)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Brazil
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
11.8.4. Chaco side-necked turtle (Acanthochelys pallidipectoris)
Geographical Range: Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

11.9. Genus Mesoclemmys
11.9.1. Amazon toad-headed turtle (Mesoclemmys raniceps)
Geographical Range: Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Brazil
Conservation Status: NA
11.9.2. Dahl's toad-headed turtle (Mesoclemmys dahli)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Colombia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
11.9.3. Gibba turtle (Mesoclemmys gibba)
Geographical Range: Most of South America
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.9.4. Hoge's side-necked turtle (Mesoclemmys hogei)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Brazil
Conservation Status: Endangered
11.9.5. Mesoclemmys heliostemma
Geographical Range: South America
Conservation Status: NA
11.9.6. Mesoclemmys nasuta
Geographical Range: Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and Brazil
Conservation Status: NA
11.9.7. Mesoclemmys perplexa
Geographical Range: Endemic to Brazil
Conservation Status: NA
11.9.8. Tuberculate toad-headed turtle (Mesoclemmys tuberculata)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Brazil
Conservation Status: NA
11.9.9. Vanderhaege's toad-headed turtle (Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei)
Geographical Range: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
11.9.10. Zulia toad-headed turtle (Mesoclemmys zuliae)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Venezuela
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

11.10. Genus Phrynops
11.10.1. Cotinga river toadhead turtle (Phrynops tubersosus)
Geographical Range: South America
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.10.2. Geoffroy's side-necked turtle (Phrynops geoffroanus)
Geographical Range: Most of South America
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.10.3. Hilaire's side-necked turtle (Phrynops hilarii)
Geographical Range: Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.10.4. Williams' side-necked turtle (Phrynops williamsi)
Geographical Range: Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina
Conservation Status: NA

11.11. Genus Platemys
11.11.1. Twist-necked turtle (Platemys platycephala)
Geographical Range: Northern South America
Conservation Status: Least Concern

11.12. Genus Rhinemys
Red side-necked turtle (Rhinemys rufipes)
Geographical Range: Brazil, Colombia and Peru
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

11.13. Genus Hydromedusa
11.13.1. Argentine snake-necked turtle (Hydromedusa tectifera)
Geographical Range: Northern Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil
Conservation Status: NA
11.13.2. Brazilian snake-necked turtle (Hydromedusa maximiliani)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Brazil
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

11.14. Genus Pelomedusa
African helmeted turtle or Marsh terrapin (Pelomedusa subrufa)
Geographical Range: Most the African continent
Conservation Status: Least Concern

11.15. Genus Pelusios
11.15.1. Adanson's mud turtle (Pelusios adansonii)
Geographical Range: Most the African continent
Conservation Status: NA
11.15.2. African dwarf mud turtle (Pelusios nanus)
Geographical Range: Southern Africa
Conservation Status: NA
11.15.3. African forest turtle (Pelusios gabonensis)
Geographical Range: Tropical West Africa
Conservation Status: NA
11.15.4. African keeled mud turtle (Pelusios carinatus)
Geographical Range: Gabon, Congo-Brazzaville and the Democratic Republic of Congo
Conservation Status: NA
11.15.5. Central african mud turtle (Pelusios chapini)
Geographical Range: Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo
Conservation Status: NA
11.15.6. East African black mud turtle (Pelusios subniger)
Geographical Range: Eastern and southeastern Africa
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.15.7. Gabon mud turtle (Pelusios marani)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Gabon
Conservation Status: NA
11.15.8. Okavango mud turtle (Pelusios bechuanicus)
Geographical Range: Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe
Conservation Status: NA
11.15.9. Serrated hinged terrapin (Pelusios sinuatus)
Geographical Range: Southern Africa
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
11.15.10. Turkana mud turtle (Pelusios broadleyi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Kenya
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
11.15.11. Upemba mud turtle (Pelusios upembae)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Democratic Republic of the Congo
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
11.15.12. Variable mud turtle (Pelusios rhodesianus)
Geographical Range: Most the African continent
Conservation Status: Least Concern
11.15.13. West African black turtle (Pelusios niger)
Geographical Range: West Africa
Conservation Status: NA
11.15.14. West African mud turtle (Pelusios castaneus)
Geographical Range: The African continent
Conservation Status: NA
11.15.15. Williams mud Turtle (Pelusios williamsi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the upper Nile drainage
Conservation Status: NA
11.15.16. Yellow-bellied mud turtle (Pelusios castanoides)
Geographical Range: Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa and Tanzania
Conservation Status: Least Concern

11.16. Genus Erymnochelys
Madagascan big-headed turtle (Erymnochelys madagascariensis)
Geographical Range: Western Madagascar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

11.17. Genus Peltocephalus
Big-headed Amazon River turtle or Big-headed sideneck (Peltocephalus dumerilianus) Geographical Range: Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Venezuela and Ecuador Conservation Status: Vulnerable

11.18. Genus Podocnemis
11.18.1. Yellow-spotted Amazon river turtle or Yellow-spotted river turtle
Yellow-spotted Amazon river turtle or Yellow-spotted river turtle (Podocnemis unifilis) Geographical Range: Amazon basin
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
11.18.2. Arrau river turtle or Charapa turtle (Podocnemis expansa)
Geographical Range: South America and the Caribbean
Conservation Status: Conservation dependent
11.18.3. Red-headed Amazon side-necked turtle or Red-headed sideneck (Podocnemis erythrocephala)
Geographical Range: Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
11.18.4. Rio Magdalena river turtle or Magdalena river turtle (Podocnemis lewyana)
Endemic to Colombia
Conservation Status: Endangered
11.18.5. Savanna side-necked turtle (Podocnemis vogli)
Venezuela and Colombia
Conservation Status: NA
11.18.6. Six-tubercled Amazon river turtle or Six-tubercled river turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata)
Geographical Range: Brazil, Colombia and Peru
Conservation Status: Vulnerable


Turtle or Tortoise
Usually, the word 'turtle' is used for the members of this reptile family found in the oceans, while those found on the land are termed 'tortoises'. With different sources coming up with different explanations, there seems to be some confusion about the usage of terms 'turtle' and 'tortoise'. Basically, the usage of these terms differs in accordance to the language in question. In British English, the term 'turtles' is used for those species which are found in the sea, and 'tortoises' for those inhabiting the land. In American English, on the other hand, the term 'turtles' is used as a general term to all the species belonging to this family; and the sea-dwelling species are specifically referred to as 'sea turtles'.


(Source: https://animalsake.com/different-types-of-turtles)

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Phân loại theo kích thước lá (là phân loại cơ bản): Lá lớn Lá trung: thanh mai, lá tứ, đuôi chồn,.. Lá kim: kim thanh mai, kim giòn, kim đuôi chồn, kim lá tứ xù. Rất dễ nhầm lẫn khi phân biệt thanh mai và kim thanh mai. Phân loại theo màu vỏ cây: đen, xanh, vàng, trắng. Và phát sinh thêm nhiều loại khác là do đột biến: mai lá tư, kim thanh mai, thanh mai... Kỹ thuật chăm sóc mai chiếu thủy đơn giản hơn các loại khác. Quan trọng là đừng để cây bị úng ngập nước. Chất trồng cơ bản: tro trấu, sơ dừa và 1 ít phân bò. Thanh mai:  Hoa lớn, ít Kim thanh mai:  Ít hoa, nhỏ.  Thích hợp làm bonsai Mai chiếu thủy lá tứ:  Lá nhỏ.  Nhiều hoa, nhỏ.  Ít chơi bonsai Mai chiếu thủy kim giòn:  Lá xanh hơi ngả màu vàng.  Thân giòn, khó uốn.  Ra hoa nhiều, nhỏ So sánh: Mai chiếu thủy lá trung và kim thanh mai: kim thanh mai lá nhỏ hơn, màu xanh đậm Mai chiếu thủy lá trung và kim dòn: kim dòn đuôi lá tròn, dày hơn. Lá trung đuôi lá nhọn, mỏng hơn Mai chiếu thủy lá tứ và ki

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Cỏ ngọt

 Cỏ ngọt Tên khoa học:  Stevia rebaudiana Asteraceae Tên gọi khác: Cúc ngọt Nguồn gốc: Châu Mỹ Thành phần: Lá chứa (% chất khô) 6,2% protein, 5,6% chất béo, 52,8% từ carbohydrate,  15% Stevioside  và khoảng 42% chất hòa tan trong nước. Công dụng: - Hiện nay được sử dụng như chất tạo vị ngọt thay thế đường trong chế độ ăn kiêng đường. - Trong Đông Y, cỏ ngọt được sử dụng trong bài thuốc điều trị đái tháo đường, béo phì, bệnh tim mạch, xơ vữa động mạch. Lịch sử Người Ấn Độ đã sử dụng trong nhiều thế kỷ loài Stevia rebaudiana để làm chất tạo ngọt và thuốc. Năm 1931, nhà hóa học người Pháp đã phân lập một  Glycoside  có hương vị ngọt ngào từ lá của cây này. Chúng được gọi là  Stevioside  và cô lập như chất aglycone tạo ngọt. Vị ngọt của Stevioside được ước tính vào khoảng 300 lần mạnh hơn mía 4. Kể từ khi các phân tử khác dựa trên chất ngọt ít hơn được phân lập cùng aglycone, chúng có độ ngọt khác nhau từ 30-450 như các rebaudioside (AF), rubusoside, steviolbioside và dulcoside. Stevioside